Overall command of this force belongs to the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR). NATO’s two Joint Force Commands (based in Brunssum, The Netherlands and Naples, Italy) have operational command of the NRF each year on rotation. Rotating forces through the NRF requires contributing Allies and partner nations to meet significant procedures and standards required for defensive and expeditionary operations. As a result, participation in the NRF is preceded by a six-month NATO exercise program in order to integrate and standardize the various national contingents. Generally, nations carry out a further pre-training period of 6 to 18 months prior to assuming the role of an NRF high-readiness unit.
Joint Force Command Naples is leading the eNRF in 2019, however, both of the JFCs are on permanent standby.
Enhancing the NRF and Developing the VJTF
In order to adapt to emerging security challenges on NATO’s eastern and southern flanks, the Alliance has enhanced the NATO Response Force into a highly flexible and capable 40,000-troop strong joint force. This includes a number of land, maritime, air, and special forces packages that can move at short notice in order to rapidly respond to threats.
The Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF)
As a part of restructuring the NRF, NATO has also established a Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF) which can deploy within days. It comprises of a multinational brigade (approximately 5,000 troops), with up to five battalions, supported by air, maritime and special forces. Some elements are ready to move within two to three days. The force is available to move at the first warnings and indicators of potential threats, before a crisis begins, to act as a potential deterrent to further escalation. The rapid arrival of this small but capable military unit would send a very clear message to any potential aggressor: "any attempt to violate the sovereignty of one NATO nation will result in a decisive military engagement with all 29 allied nations”. The VJTF’s rapid response times are what set it apart from other components of the NRF.
NATO Force Integration Units (NFIU)
Rapid deployment of the VJTF will be facilitated by small command and control and reception facilities called NATO Force Integration Units (NFIU). NFIUs have been established in Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia, and will be staffed on a rotational basis. NFIUs work in conjunction with host nations to identify logistical networks, transportation nodes and supporting infrastructure to ensure NATO high-readiness forces can deploy into an assigned region as quickly as possible. With the help of NFIUs, some units of the VJTF will be capable of moving in just two days, with most ready to move in less than seven days.
Work on developing and testing the VJTF concept has finished. Germany is the framework nation for the VJTF 2019 with the German 9th Panzerlehrbrigade (Armoured Tank Brigade) in the lead. The force's key contributors include Norway, Belgium, France and the Netherlands. Maritime and air elements will be provided by the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and Belgium amongst others. A series of exercises, trials, and evaluations in 2017 developed, refined and implemented this concept.
- Enhanced Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (eVJTF): This is a new component of the NRF, consisting of forces at the highest level of readiness. It is a joint force consisting of a land component with appropriate air, maritime and special operations components as needed. It will be able to deploy within a few days to respond to any challenges that may arise on NATO’s flanks. The VJTF’s rapid response times and its ability to deploy in advance of a crisis are what set it apart from other components in the NRF.
- Initial Follow On Forces Group (IFFG): These are high-readiness forces that can deploy quickly following the VJTF, in response to a crisis.
- Response Forces Pool (RFP): NATO will retain the same broad spectrum of military capabilities that it did in the previous NRF structure.
Command and Control: Joint Force Command Naples is the lead headquarters for the NRF in 2019, and is supported by the following command and control elements:
- Land: First German Netherlands Corps (1GNC)
- Air: Spanish Joint Force Air Component Command (ESP JFAC)
- Maritime: Strike Force NATO (SFN) supported by Polish Maritime Operational Center
- Special Operations: Special Operations Component Command
·Interim Joint Logistic Support Group (JLSG) from JFC Naples
- Multinational Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Battalion, led by France
Combat Forces: Air, land, maritime, special forces, and logistics troops from across the Alliance have been placed on a high level of readiness and are available to support NRF 2019 if required. The details on the exact composition, locations and readiness of these forces is not publically releasable in order to protect operational security.
Readiness Action Plan
Changes to the NRF are just one of the adaption measures approved by Allies at the Wales Summit under the Readiness Action Plan. Other related initiatives include:
- Assuring Allies with an increased presence including exercises and maritime and air patrols, surveillance, and policing
- Upgrading intelligence gathering and sharing and updating defence plans in order to enhance NATO’s ability to quickly detect and respond to ambiguous hybrid threats
- The pre-positioning of military equipment and supplies
- Improvement of NATO’s ability to reinforce its eastern Allies through preparation of national infrastructure, such as airfields and ports
- More exercises focused both on crisis management and collective defence
- Enhancing NATO’s Standing Naval Forces
- Raising the readiness and capabilities of the Headquarters Multinational Corps Northeast (Szczecin, Poland) and enhancing its role as a hub for regional cooperation